Research Institute of National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities (NRCD)




1)   Yaeshima K, Negishi D, Yamamoto S-I, Nakazawa K, Ogata T Kawashima N. Mechanical and neural changes in plantar-flexor muscles after spinal cord injury in humans. Spinal Cord (in press)

2)   Masugi Y, Kitamura T, Kamibayashi K, Ogawa T, Ogata T, Kawashima N, Nakazawa K. Velocity-dependent suppression of the soleus H-reflex during robot-assisted passive stepping. Neurosci Lett. 584:337-41, 2015

3)   Miyoshi T, Komatsu F, Takagi M, Kawashima N. Attempt toward the development of aquatic exercise device for gait disorders. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 23:1-7, 2014

4)   Ogawa T, Kawashima N, Ogata T, Nakazawa K. Predictive control of ankle stiffness at heel contact is a key element of locomotor adaptation during split-belt treadmill walking in humans. J Neurophysiol 111(4): 722-732, 2014

5)   Kawashima N, Mita T, and Yoshikawa M. Inter-individual difference in the effect of mirror reflection-induced visual feedback on phantom limb awareness in forelimb amputees. PLoS One 8(7) e69324, 2013

6)   Akahira H, Yamaguchi Y, Nakazawa K, Ohta Y and Kawashima N*. Novel gait orthosis for SCI patients with motor-assisted knee flexion. J Novel Physiotherapy S1:004, 2013 *Corresponding Author

7)   Kawashima N, Popovic MR, Zivanovic V. Effect of intensive functional electrical stimulation therapy on the upper limb motor recovery after stroke: Single case study of a chronic stroke patient. Physiotherapy Canada 65(1), 20-28, 2013

8)   Ogawa T, Kawashima N, Ogata T, Nakazawa K. Limited transfer of newly acquired movement patterns across walking and running in humans. PLoS One 7(9): e46349, 2012

9)   Ogawa T, Kawashima N, Suzuki S, and Nakazawa K. Different modulation pattern of the spinal stretch reflex excitability in well-trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 112, 3641-3648, 2012

10) Kawashima N, Abe MO, Iwaya T, and Haga N. Deficit of the grip force control in patients with congenital insensitivity to pain. Exp Brain Res 218, 579-588, 2012

11) Ogawa T, Kawashima N, Suzuki S, and Nakazawa K. Asymmetrical neural adaptation in lower leg muscles as a consequence of stereotypical motor training. J Motor Behavior 44: 63-68, 2012

12) Miyatani M, Masani K, Kawashima N, Craven C, Thrasher A, Popovic MR. Exercise Intensity during Treadmill Walking with Gait Patterned FES among Patients with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Case Series. ISRN Rehabilitation Volume 2012, Article ID 251750, 6 pages

13) Obata H, Kawashima N, Nakazawa K and Ohtsuki T. Aging effect on posture-related modulation of stretch reflex excitability in the ankle muscles in humans. J Electromyography Kinesiol 22(1):31-6, 2012

14) Shimba S, Kawashima N, Ohta Y, Yamamoto S-I and Nakazawa K. Enhanced stretch reflex excitability in the soleus muscle during passive standing posture in humans. J Electromyography Kinesiol 20: 406-412, 2010

15) Obata H, Kawashima N, Akai M, Nakazawa K and Ohtsuki T. Age-related changes of the stretch reflex excitability in human ankle muscles. J Electromyography Kinesiol 20: 55-60, 2010

16) Kawashima N and Mita T. Metal bar prevents phantom limb motion. Neurocase 15: 478-484, 2009

17) Nakazawa K, Kawashima N and Akai M. Effect of different preparatory states on the reflex responses of ankle flexor and extensor muscles to a sudden drop of support surface during standing in humans. J Electromyograp Kinesiol 19: 782-788, 2009

18) Masani K, Sin VW, Vette AH, Thrasher TA, Kawashima N, Morris A, Preuss R, Popovic MA. Postural reactions of the trunk muscles to multi-directional perturbations in sitting. Clin Biomech 24: 176-182, 2009

19) Kawashima N, Nozaki D, Abe MO and Nakazawa K. Shaping appropriate locomotive motor output through interlimb neural pathway within spinal cord in humans. J Neurophysiol 99: 2946-2955, 2008.

20) Masani K, Vitte AH, Kawashima N, Popovic MR. Neuro-musculo-skeletal torque generation process has a large destabilizing effect on the control mechanism of quiet standing. J Neurophysiol 100: 1465–1475, 2008.

21) Kawashima N and Nakazawa K. Characteristice of the locomotor-like muscle activity during orthotic gait in complete paraplegic patients. Neurological Research 30:36-45, 2008.

22) Yu E, Abe OM, Masani K, Kawashima N, Eto F, Haga N, Nakazawa K. Evaluation of postural control in quiet standing using the center of mass acceleration: comparison among the young, the elderly and individuals with stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89: 1133-1139, 2008.

23) Jiggid E, Kawashima N, Ogata H, Nakazawa K, Akai M, Eto F, and Haga N.  Effects of the passive leg movement on the oxygenation level of lower limb muscle in the chronic stroke patients. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 22: 40-49, 2008

24) Ohta Y, Yano H, Suzuki R, Yoshida M, Kawashima N, and Nakazawa K. A two-degree-of-freedom motor-powered gait orthosis for spinal cord injury patients. Proc Inst Mech Eng 221: 629-639, 2007

25) Kawashima N, Yano H, Ohta Y, and Nakazawa K. Stretch reflex modulation during imposed static and dynamic hip movements in standing humans. Exp Brain Res 174: 342-350, 2006

26) Kawashima N, Taguchi D, Nakazawa K, and Akai M. Effect of lesion level on the orthotic gait performance in individuals with spinal cord injuries. Spinal Cord 44: 487-494, 2006

27) Higuchi Y, Kitamura S, Kawashima N, Nakazawa K, Iwaya T, Yamasaki M. Cardiorespiratory responses during passive walking-like exercise in quadriplegics. Spinal Cord 44: 495-501, 2006.

28) Nakazawa K, Kawashima N, and Akai M. Enhanced stretch reflex excitability of the soleus muscle in incomplete rather than complete spinal cord injured persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 87: 71-76, 2006

29) Kawashima N, Nakazawa K, and Akai M.  Muscle oxygenation of the paralyzed lower limb in spinal cord injured persons. Med Sci & Sport Exerc 37: 915-921, 2005.

30) Kawashima N., Nozaki D., Abe OM., Nakazawa K., and Akai M.  Alternative leg movement amplifies locomotor-like muscle activity in spinal cord injured persons. J Neurophysiol 93: 777-785, 2005.

31) Nakazawa K, Kakihana W, Kawashima N and Akai M.  Induction of locomotor-like EMG activity in paraplegic persons by orthotic gait training.  Exp Brain Res 157: 117-123, 2004.

32) Kawashima N, Nakazawa K, Ishii N, Akai M. and Yano H.  Potential impact of orthotic gait on natural killer cell activities in thoracic level of spinal cord injured patients. Spinal Cord 42: 420-424, 2004.

33) Kawashima N, Nakazawa K, Yamamoto S-I, Nozaki D and Yano H.  Stretch reflex excitability of the anti-gravity ankle extensor muscle in elderly humans. Acta Physiol Scand 180: 99-105, 2004.

34) Nakazawa K, Kawashima N, Akai M and Yano H. On the reflex co-activation of ankle flexor and extensor muscles induced by a sudden drop of support surface during walking in humans. J Appl Physiol 94: 604-611, 2004

35) Kawashima N, Sone Y, Nakazawa K, Akai M. and Yano H.  Energy expenditure during walking with weight bearing control orthosis (WBC) in thoracic level of paraplegic patients.  Spinal Cord 41: 506-510, 2003

36) Nozaki D, Kawashima N, Aramaki Y, Nakajima Y, Akai M, Yano H and Nakazawa K.  Sustained muscle contractions maintained by autonomous activity of human spinal motoneurons.  J Neurophysiol 90: 2090-2097, 2003

37) Kawashima N, Sekiguchi H, Miyoshi T, Nakazawa K and Akai M.  Inhibition of the human soleus H-reflex during standing without descending commands. Neurosci Lett 345: 41-45, 2003

38) Nakazawa K, Kawashima N, Obata H, Yamanaka K, Nozaki D, Akai M.@Facilitation of both stretch reflex and corticospinal pathways of the tibialis anterior muscle during standing in human.   Neuroscience Lett 338: 53-56, 2003

39) Akai M., Kawashima N., Kimura T. and Hayashi K. Effect of electrical stimulation as an adjunct to spinal fusion; A meta-analysis of clinical controlled trials.  Bioelectromagnetics; 23:496-504, 2002

40) Yamanaka K., Kimura T., Kawashima N., Nozaki D., Nakazawa K., Hideo Y. and Yamamoto Y Human cortical activities during Go/NoGo tasks with opposite motor control paradigms. Exp Brain Res 142: 301–307, 2002